March 17, 2015
Quoting relevant content,
explain how the writer supports his claims
using data (facts and statistics), reasoning, examples, history, anecdotes, personal experiences, etc.
and makes use of language
to achieve the writer’s desired effect.
The author values darkness and wants his readers to realize how important darkness is to us.
At my family’s cabin on a Minnesota lake, I knew woods so dark that my hands disappeared before my eyes. I knew night skies in (1) which meteors left smoky trails across sugary spreads of stars. But now, when (2) eight of ten children born in the United States will never know a sky dark enough for the Milky Way, I worry we are rapidly losing night’s natural darkness before realizing its worth. This winter solstice, as we cheer the days’ gradual movement back toward light, let us also remember the irreplaceable value of darkness.
All life evolved to the steady rhythm of bright days and dark nights. Today, though, when we feel the closeness of nightfall, we reach quickly for a light switch. And too little darkness, meaning too much artificial light at night, spells trouble for all.
(3) Already the World Health Organization classifies working the night shift as a probable human carcinogen, and the American Medical Association has voiced its unanimous support for “light pollution reduction efforts and glare reduction efforts at both the national and state levels.” (4) Our bodies need darkness to produce the hormone melatonin, which keeps certain cancers from developing, and our bodies need darkness for sleep. Sleep disorders have been linked to diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease and depression, and recent research suggests one main cause of “short sleep” is “long light.” Whether we work at night or simply take our tablets, notebooks and smartphones to bed, there isn’t a place for this much artificial light in our lives.
The rest of the world depends on darkness as well, (5) including nocturnal and crepuscular species of birds, insects, mammals, fish and reptiles. Some examples are well known—the 400 species of birds that migrate at night in North America, the sea turtles that come ashore to lay their eggs—and some are not, such as the bats that save American farmers billions in pest control and the moths that pollinate 80% of the world’s flora. Ecological light pollution is like the (6) bulldozer of the night, wrecking habitat and disrupting ecosystems several billion years in the making. Simply put, without darkness, Earth’s ecology would collapse. . . . (7)
In today’s (8) crowded, louder, more fast-paced world, night’s darkness can provide solitude, quiet and stillness, qualities increasingly in short supply. Every religious tradition has considered darkness invaluable for a soulful life, and the chance to witness the universe has inspired artists, philosophers and everyday stargazers since time began. (9) In a world awash with electric light . . . how would Van Gogh have given the world his “Starry Night”? Who knows what this vision of the night sky might inspire in each of us, in our children or grandchildren?
Yet all over the world, our nights are growing brighter. (10) In the United States and Western Europe, the amount of light in the sky increases an average of about 6% every year. Computer images of the United States at night, based on NASA photographs, show that what was a very dark country as recently as the 1950s is now nearly covered with a blanket of light. Much of this light is wasted energy, which means wasted dollars. (11) Those of us over 35 are perhaps among the last generation to have known truly dark nights. Even the northern lake where I was lucky to spend my summers has seen its darkness diminish.
(12) It doesn’t have to be this way. Light pollution is readily within our ability to solve, using new lighting technologies and shielding existing lights. Already, many cities and towns across North America and Europe are changing to LED streetlights, (13) which offer dramatic possibilities for controlling wasted light. Other communities are finding success with simply turning off portions of their public lighting after midnight. (14) Even Paris, the famed “city of light,” which already turns off its monument lighting after 1 a.m., will this summer start to require its shops, offices and public buildings to turn off lights after 2 a.m. Though primarily designed to save energy, such reductions in light will also go far in addressing light pollution. (15) But we will never truly address the problem of light pollution until we become aware of the irreplaceable value and beauty of the darkness we are losing.
(1) The descriptive words used in this personal example add visual intensity, evoking the wonder of the night sky, and positive connotations, such as “sugary.”
(2) The writer uses this statistic as evidence to illuminate his subsequent claim that we “are rapidly losing night’s natural darkness.”
(3) Providing evidence from authoritative sources (the World Health Organization and the American Medical Association) adds legitimacy to the writer’s claim in the paragraph above that “too little darkness . . . spells trouble for all.”
(4) The writer continues to draw on evidence from the authorities cited above. He uses this evidence to illustrate his subsequent point that “whether we work at night or simply take our . . . smartphones to bed, there isn’t a place for this much artificial light in our lives.”
(5) The presentation of facts and evidence supports the claim that follows at the end of the paragraph that “without darkness, Earth’s ecology would collapse.”
(6) The writer compares light pollution to the effects of a “bulldozer,” a machine that can be used to ravage land. This imagery dramatizes the destructive potential of light pollution.
(7) By first discussing the human need for darkness and then moving into a discussion of the need for darkness among animals, the writer is able to build his argument about the “irreplaceable value of darkness.”
(8) The writer makes a stylistic choice here, contrasting a “crowded, louder, more fast-paced world” with darkness that “can provide solitude, quiet and stillness.” These words allow the writer to characterize a well-lit world as undesirable and to depict darkness as peaceful and pleasing.
(9) The use of rhetorical questions encourages the reader to consider a world without Van Gogh’s beloved painting and what Van Gogh’s vision inspires in us all. The suggestion of a world without such artistry and the notion that darkness is “invaluable for a soulful life” are also designed to evoke an emotional reaction in the reader.
(10) This statistic is used as evidence to support the claim that “our nights are growing brighter,” which leads into the writer’s point that this “blanket of light” is largely “wasted energy, which means wasted dollars.”
(11) By returning to the introduction’s description of a youth spent admiring dark nights, the writer creates another emotional appeal—this one to fear, especially in readers under thirty-five years old, who may now realize that their opportunities to witness true darkness are “diminishing.”
(12) The writer moves from evoking fear to reassuring readers that there is a solution to the problem of light pollution.
(13) The writer chooses his words carefully in this paragraph in order to shape readers’ perceptions and bolster his claims. For example, he argues that we are using too much light when less is needed by referring to light being “wasted.” He also suggests how easily the problem of light pollution might be addressed, using “simply” to describe what “other communities” are doing.
(14) The writer reasons that if even a city known for its light, Paris, can enact sensible restrictions, it ought to be comparatively easy for cities not famous for their use of light to do so as well. Paris is also used as evidence to support the writer’s previous claim that “communities are already finding success.”
(15) The argument to “address the problem of light pollution” concludes by recalling the “irreplaceable value and beauty” of darkness. That this darkness is being lost, as evidenced over the course of the writer’s argument, serves as a final appeal to readers’ emotions.
In response to our world’s growing reliance on artificial light, writer Paul Bogard argues that natural darkness should be preserved in his article “Let There be dark.” He effectively builds his argument by using a personal anecdote, allusions to art and history, and rhetorical questions.
Bogard starts his article off by recounting a personal story—a summer spent on a Minnesota lake where there was “woods so dark that [his] hands disappeared before [his] eyes.” In telling this brief anecdote, Bogard challenges the audience to remember a time where they could fully amass themselves in natural darkness void of artificial light. By drawing in his readers with a personal encounter about night darkness, the author means to establish the potential for beauty, glamour, and awe-inspiring mystery that genuine darkness can possess. He builds his argument for the preservation of natural darkness by reminiscing for his readers a first-hand encounter that proves the “irreplaceable value of darkness.” This anecdote provides a baseline of sorts for readers to find credence with the author’s claims.
Bogard’s argument is also furthered by his use of allusion to art – Van Gogh’s “Starry Night” – and modern history – Paris’ reputation as “The City of Light”. By first referencing “Starry Night”, a painting generally considered to be undoubtedly beautiful, Bogard establishes that the natural magnificence of stars in a dark sky is definite. A world absent of excess artificial light could potentially hold the key to a grand, glorious night sky like Van Gogh’s according to the writer. This urges the readers to weigh the disadvantages of our world consumed by unnatural, vapid lighting. Furthermore, Bogard’s alludes to Paris as “the famed ‘city of light'”. He then goes on to state how Paris has taken steps to exercise more sustainable lighting practices. By doing this, Bogard creates a dichotomy between Paris’ traditionally alluded-to name and the reality of what Paris is becoming – no longer “the city of light”, but more so “the city of light…before 2 AM”. This furthers his line of argumentation because it shows how steps can be and are being taken to preserve natural darkness. It shows that even a city that is literally famous for being constantly lit can practically address light pollution in a manner that preserves the beauty of both the city itself and the universe as a whole.
Finally, Bogard makes subtle yet efficient use of rhetorical questioning to persuade his audience that natural darkness preservation is essential. He asks the readers to consider “what the vision of the night sky might inspire in each of us, in our children or grandchildren?” in a way that brutally plays to each of our emotions. By asking this question, Bogard draws out heartfelt ponderance from his readers about the affecting power of an untainted night sky. This rhetorical question tugs at the readers’ heartstrings; while the reader may have seen an unobscured night skyline before, the possibility that their child or grandchild will never get the chance sways them to see as Bogard sees. This strategy is definitively an appeal to pathos, forcing the audience to directly face an emotionally-charged inquiry that will surely spur some kind of response. By doing this, Bogard develops his argument, adding guttural power to the idea that the issue of maintaining natural darkness is relevant and multifaceted.
Writing as a reaction to his disappointment that artificial light has largely permeated the presence of natural darkness, Paul Bogard argues that we must preserve true, unaffected darkness. He builds this claim by making use of a personal anecdote, allusions, and rhetorical questioning.
This response scored a full score of 12: 4 Reading/4 Analysis/4 Writing.
Reading—4: This response demonstrates thorough comprehension of the source text through skillful use of paraphrases and direct quotations. The writer briefly summarizes the central idea of Bogard’s piece (natural darkness should be preserved; we must preserve true, unaffected darkness), and presents many details from the text, such as referring to the personal anecdote that opens the passage and citing Bogard’s use of Paris’ reputation as “The City of Light.” There are few long direct quotations from the source text; instead, the response succinctly and accurately captures the entirety of Bogard’s argument in the writer’s own words, and the writer is able to articulate how details in the source text interrelate with Bogard’s central claim. The response is also free of errors of fact or interpretation. Overall, the response demonstrates advanced reading comprehension.
Analysis—4: This response offers an insightful analysis of the source text and demonstrates a sophisticated understanding of the analytical task. In analyzing Bogard’s use of personal anecdote, allusions to art and history, and rhetorical questions, the writer is able to explain carefully and thoroughly how Bogard builds his argument over the course of the passage. For example, the writer offers a possible reason for why Bogard chose to open his argument with a personal anecdote, and is also able to describe the overall effect of that choice on his audience (In telling this brief anecdote, Bogard challenges the audience to remember a time where they could fully amass themselves in natural darkness void of artificial light. By drawing in his readers with a personal encounter…the author means to establish the potential for beauty, glamour, and awe-inspiring mystery that genuine darkness can possess…. This anecdote provides a baseline of sorts for readers to find credence with the author’s claims). The cogent chain of reasoning indicates an understanding of the overall effect of Bogard’s personal narrative both in terms of its function in the passage and how it affects his audience. This type of insightful analysis is evident throughout the response and indicates advanced analytical skill.
Writing—4: The response is cohesive and demonstrates highly effective use and command of language. The response contains a precise central claim (He effectively builds his argument by using personal anecdote, allusions to art and history, and rhetorical questions), and the body paragraphs are tightly focused on those three elements of Bogard’s text. There is a clear, deliberate progression of ideas within paragraphs and throughout the response. The writer’s brief introduction and conclusion are skillfully written and encapsulate the main ideas of Bogard’s piece as well as the overall structure of the writer’s analysis. There is a consistent use of both precise word choice and well-chosen turns of phrase (the natural magnificence of stars in a dark sky is definite, our world consumed by unnatural, vapid lighting, the affecting power of an untainted night sky). Moreover, the response features a wide variety in sentence structure and many examples of sophisticated sentences (By doing this, Bogard creates a dichotomy between Paris’ traditionally alluded-to name and the reality of what Paris is becoming – no longer “the city of light”, but more so “the city of light…before 2AM”). The response demonstrates a strong command of the conventions of written English. Overall, the response exemplifies advanced writing proficiency.
In response to our world’s growing reliance on artificial light, writer Paul Bogard argues that natural darkness should be preserved in his article “Let There be Dark.” He effectively builds his argument by using a personal anecdote, allusions to art and history, and rhetorical questions.
August 14, 2015
Write the author’s name, the title of the article, the main idea, and the organization of the essay.
Use a common phrase: “builds his argument,” establish, construct a case, defense.
Use a common adverb: “effectively,” convincingly, persuasively, coherently, cogently, eloquently.