15.1 Introduction to Psychological Disorders

Psychological disorders
a syndrome marked by a clinically significant disturbance in an individual’s cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior.
medical model
the concept that disease, in this case psychological disorders, have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and, in most cases, cured, often through treatment in a hospital.
Epigenetics
the study of environmental influences or gene expression that occur without a DNA change.
DSM-5
the american psychiatric association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition; widely used system of classifying psychological orders.
attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
a psychological disorder marked by extreme inattention and/or hyperactivity and impulsivity.
biopsychosocial
An integrated understanding of psychological disorders in terms of stressful memories, evolutionary processes, and gender roles is most clearly provided by a(n) _____ approach.
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labels
David Rosenhan conducted a study examining the biasing power of diagnostic _____.
the effect of culture
One of the strengths of the biopsychosocial model, in comparison to the medical model, is that the biopsychosocial model incorporates _____ into an understanding of psychological disorders.
psychiatrists may be over-extending the bounds of normality and labeling normal behavior as a disorder.
The DSM-5 added many new psychological disorders to its list. A criticism of this change was that:
Schizophrenia
_____ is a mental disorder that is most likely to lead to poverty.