exchanging goods for goods
Which country gained a monopoly on Mediterranean trade?
What area was the marketplace of northern Europe?
Discuss both markets and fairs
see pg. 228
grew in importance because they had experience in judging the approximate value of coins, discovering counterfeit currency, and determining one currency’s value in relation to another – all for a fee
Discuss how the Roman Church viewed economic activity.
They sought to place restraints on business to prevent greed and the hoarding of wealth. They believed that man had a particular place in society and was expected to work for the common good of society. They also believed that if a man received a profit greater than his needs, he was expected to give it to charity.
“just price” for goods sold
a price that included the cost of materials, a fair return for labor expended, and a reasonable profit
the practice of charging interest for the use of lent money (a practice prohibited by the medieval church)
What economic principles were brought about due to changes in business practices and a revival of trade?
dignity of labor, the legitimacy of profit, freedom of exchange, and individual responsibility
What factors contributed to the growth of towns in Europe during the Middle Ages?
increased agricultural production (due to better farming methods), a revival of trade, and increased population (due to an increased food supply)
document that outlined the rights and freedoms of the townspeople that were granted by the feudal lord
Essay – discuss the shared basic freedoms (free status and town justice) that were usually part of most town charters
see page 232 – list and give details about free status and town justice
organizations formed to regulate the business activity of a given town
three classes (in order) of the craft guild
apprentice, journeyman, and master
German organization that sought to control and organize trade in the Baltic region
killed one-fourth of the population of Europe in the fourteenth century
What affect did the middle class have on society during the Middle Ages?
They threatened the nobility’s position in society, weakened the nobility’s political authority, and contributed to the decline of feudalism.
What were the primary centers of education during the Middle Ages?
monasteries and cathedrals
Discuss the liberal arts curriculum of the Middle Ages
trivium – grammar, rhetoric, and logic; quadrivium – arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music
What was the primary factor that students in the Middle Ages considered when choosing a school?
the teachers at the school
characterized by a renewed interest in theology and philosophy
earliest scholastic thinker; used logic to support doctrines of the Christian faith including the existence of God
wrote Sic et non – listed questions concerning important articles of faith
wrote Summa Theologica – attempted to demonstrate in a systematic fashion that the teachings of the church were in harmony with the logic and philosophy of Aristotle
What characterized medieval science?
Magic and superstition
English scientist who advocated observation and experimentation as tests for scientific conclusions
language of the learned during the Middle Ages
common spoken language
long narrative poems that celebrated the adventures of legendary heroes; the earliest forms of vernacular literature
wrote Divine Comedy – describes an imaginary journey through hell, purgatory, and paradise
wrote The Canterbury Tales – a collection of stories told by pilgrims on their way to visit the tomb of Becket; depicts English life and customs
What influenced most of medieval art and architecture?
the church – most art was primarily religious
Francis of Assisi and Bernard of Clairvaux
wrote medieval hymns that are still sung today
Discuss the features of Romanesque and Gothic architecture
Who fought the Hundred Years’ War?
France and England
What major victories did England win?
Agincourt, Crecy, and Poitiers
Who won the Hundred Years’ War?
What weapon helped the English win several key battles?
Who rallied the French and spurred a sense of nationalism?
Joan of Arc
What was the name of the series of conflicts between the two rival families in England (the houses of York and Lancaster)?
the Wars of the Roses
Which family began to rule England as a result of the Wars of the Roses?
the Tudors – founded by Henry VII
a royal land tax levied by the king of France
the Spanish effort to drive the Moors out of Spain
How was the nation of Spain created?
The nation of Spain was created when Ferdinand and Isabella got married.
the German equivalent to the English Parliament and the French Estates-General; chose weak men as emperors in order to protect the power of the German nobility (the real power in Germany)
family who took control of Austria and her possessions
pope who was humiliated by King Philip IV of France; claimed supremacy in Unam Sanctam
time period when more than one pope claimed supremacy
Council of Constance
ended the Great Schism
University of Paris
professor guild; taught liberal arts and theology
University of Bologna
student guild; taught law