10th Grade U.S. History final exam

Vasco de Gama
A Portugese sailor who was the first European to sail around southern Africa to the Indian Ocean
Hernado Cortes
Spanish explorer who conquered the Aztecs
Vasco de Balboa
First European to reach the Pacific Ocean, 1513.
Ferdinand Magellan
1st to circumnavigate the globe
Amerigo Vespucci
A mapmaker and explorer who said that America was a new continent, so America was named after him.
Jamestown
1st permanent English settlement in North America
Reason for the founding of Plymouth
Religious freedom
William Bradford
A pilgrim that lived in a north colony called Plymouth Rock in 1620. He was chosen governor 30 times. He also conducted experiments of living in the wilderness and wrote about them; well known for “Of Plymouth Plantation.”
Established Rhode Island
Roger Williams
Established Connecticut
Thomas Hooker
Thomas Paine
Revolutionary leader who wrote the pamphlet Common Sense (1776) arguing for American independence from Britain. In England he published The Rights of Man
Phillis Wheatley
American poet (born in Africa) who was the first recognized Black writer in America (1753-1784)
Captured the Hessians at Trenton
George Washington
Lost Battle of Saratoga
General Burgoyne
Victor at Fallen Timbers
Mad Anthony Wayne
Lost Battle of Yorktown
General Cornwallis
Leader of American Army during War for Independence
George Washington
William Blackstone
Wrote commentaries on the Laws of England
Father of the Constitution
James Madison
First chief justice of Supreme Court
John Jay
Established First National Bank
Alexander Hamilton
Stephen Decatur
American naval hero of the War of 1812; “Our country, right or wrong!”
Elected president in 1800
Jefferson
Lewis & Clark
(1804-1806) Commissioned by Jefferson to map and explore the Louisiana Purchase region. Beginning at St. Louis, Missouri, the expedition travelled up the Missouri River to the Great Divide, and then down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean. It produced extensive maps of the area and recorded many scientific discoveries, greatly facilitating later settlement of the region and travel to the Pacific coast.
Louisiana Purchase
1803 purchase of the Louisiana territory from France. Made by Jefferson, this doubled the size of the US.
Year of “favorite sons” election
1824- Adams son
Isaac Backus
Baptist pastor who worked to give America religious freedom
Established spoils system
Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson’s 2nd Vice President
Martin Van Buren
Commodore Matthew Perry
American naval commander who demanded Japan open up to trade again
Adoniram Judson
Father of American Missions
Webster-Ashburton Treaty
1842 – Established Maine’s northern border and the boundaries of the Great Lake states.
California Gold Rush
1849
Noah Webster
American writer who wrote textbooks to help the advancement of education. He also wrote a dictionary which helped standardize the American language.
Oberlin College
(AJ) , first college to teach women and African Americans
Robert Fulton
Along with Robert R Livingston, put the first steamboats into service in 1807.
Eli Whitney
Cotton Gin
Elias Howe
Sewing machine
Cyrus Field
Laid 1st transatlantic cable
John Deere
Steel plow
Samuel Morse
Telegraph
Missouri Compromise
“Compromise of 1820” over the issue of slavery in Missouri. It was decided Missouri entered as a slave state and Maine entered as a free state and all states North of the 36th parallel were free states and all South were slave states.
Proposed Kansas-Nebraska Bill
Stephan Douglas
Dred Scott
American slave who sued his master for keeping him enslaved in a territory where slavery was banned under the missouri Compromise
Free Soil Party founder
1848 Martin Van Buren
Fifty-four forty or fight
slogan used in the 1844 presidential election as a call for us annexation of the Oregon territory. Polk
Mexican dictator during Texas War for Independence.
Santa Anna
First president of “Lone Star Republic”
Sam Houston
President after Taylor
Fillmore 1850
Won election of 1856
James Buchanan
William Lloyd Garrison
The Liberator
Uncle Tom’s Cabin
(Harriet Beecher) Stowe 1852
Jefferson Davis
President of the Confederacy
Robert E. Lee
Confederate General
Killed at Chancellorsville
Stonewall Jackson
Turning point of the Civil War
Gettysburg
Phrase added to coins during Civil War
In God we trust
Emancipation Proclamation
Lincoln
Ulysses S. Grant
Union’s best general
William T. Sherman
A Union general and friend of Grant that was given command of the push to the sea. One of the more competent Union generals, he secured the deep south by a total war policy.
Surrender at Appomattox
On April 9, 1865, General Lee surrendered to General Grant at Appomattox Court House in Virginia.
Lincoln’s 2nd Vice President
Andrew Johnson
Union Party
Temporary name for Republican party in 1864
John Wilkes Booth
…, was an American stage actor who, as part of a conspiracy plot, assassinated Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President of the United States, at Ford’s Theatre in Washington, D.C. on April 14, 1865.
13th, 14th, 15th amendments
13. abolished slavery, 14. Declares that all persons born in the U.S. are citizens and are guaranteed equal protection of the laws, 15. citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude
Clara Barton
Launched the American Red Cross in 1881. An “angel” in the Civil War, she treated the wounded in the field.
Years of Reconstruction
1865-1877
Lincoln’s Reconstruction Plan
1. amnesty to all but few southerners who took oath of loyalty 2. 10% percent of state voters (1860 elect.) taken oath could organize state gov. 3. members of conf. gov officers of army, former federal judges, members of congress could not receive amnesty
Freedmen’s Bureau
1865 – Agency set up to aid former slaves in adjusting themselves to freedom. It furnished food and clothing to needy blacks and helped them get jobs
Up From Slavery
Booker T. Washington
Founded Tuskegee Institute
Booker T. Washington
President that removed federal troops from the South
Rutherford B. Hayes
Compromise of 1877
…, Ended Reconstruction. Republicans promise 1) Remove military from South, 2) Appoint Democrat to cabinet (David Key postmaster general), 3) Federal money for railroad construction and levees on Mississippi river
Carpetbaggers
A northerner who went to the South immediately after the Civil War; especially one who tried to gain political advantage or other advantages from the disorganized situation in southern states;
Scalawags
A derogatory term for Southerners who were working with the North to buy up land from desperate Southerners