10. THE 20TH CENTURY SINCE 1945

The migrations from Asia caused a significant mingling of _____________ and _____________
Religions & culture
The two opposing ideologies that waged the cold war and created two major political boundaries were _____________ and _____________
Communism & Democracy
Much of Eastern European history involved _____________ and _____________ tribes
Slavic & Germanic
1. Bosnia
2. Croatia
3. Serbia
1. Muslim
2. Catholic
3. Orthodox
The main form of Government now practiced by the former Soviet Republics is _____________ and _____________
Parliamentary & Democracy
Bosnia, Croatia, and Serbia were once part of _____________
Yugoslavia
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_____________ is not a characteristic of ethnicity
Politics
Gender equality is an issue in the world today but not in all regions of the world. In which regions might gender equality NOT be a topic of discussion?
In Patriarchal societies where men dominate all leadership positions
Which of the following is not a characteristic of fundamentalism?
Different beliefs accepted
Religious militancy is restricted to _____________
all beliefs
The countries of Europe expanded the weapons of self-destruction during World War II.
True
World leaders followed the same pattern for reconstruction after World War II as they did following the First World War.
False
Three of the things the Marshall Plan was designed to do were:
1. rebuild the European industrial complex
2.stem the tied of communism in the region
3.relieve food shortages
The first two nations to receive aid from the Marshall Plan were _____.
Greece & Turkey
The _____________ Doctrine’s sole aim to stop the spread of communism anywhere in the world.
Truman
Which statement best summarizes the global depression?
Overspeculation and fear of currency losing value made the depression longer and more severe.
The United States was placed in control of _____________ Korea and the Soviet Union was placed in control of _____________.
South, North
The United Nations replaced the _____.
League of Nations
Who were the big three, who made most of the decisions about how World War II would end and what would happen afterward?
Joseph Stalin, Franklin Roosevelt, Winston Churchill
After World War II, Germany was divided into four parts, controlled by which powers?
Great Britain, Soviet Union, The U.S., France
What are three countries that became communist following World War II?
Hungary, Poland, Bulgaria
Who controlled South Korea following World War II?
The United Nations
The leader of the Communist Party in China following World War II was _____.
Mao Zedong
World War II caused the end of European imperialism.
True
Bipolar
describes a world with two superpowers; e.g., the U.S. and the Soviet Union
Bloc
a united group of countries with common interests, goals, or aims
Multipolar
describes a world with many great powers; e.g., 19th-century England, France, Germany, Spain, and the Netherlands.
The original United Nations charter was signed by ________ countries.
50
What are three goals of the United Nations?
1. to promote human rights
2. to increase the standard of living for all people
3. to provide a basis for international law
What event spurred world leaders to begin the United Nations?
World War II
The Security Council is made up of ______ permanent members and _______ temporary members.
5, 10
Which language is not one of the official United Nations languages?
German
Everyone in the Security Council has veto power.
False
The two main jobs of the United Nations are:
Keeping the peace & protecting human rights
What world leader gave the famous speech about the Iron Curtain?
Winston Churchill
The United Kingdom, France, and Israel fought against ______ over rights to the Suez Canal.
Egypt
Greece and Turkey were the first two nations to receive aid under the _______ Doctrine.
Truman
In what year did the infamous Bay of Pigs incident occur?
1961
The U.S. invaded this Caribbean island in 1983 to stop Communist intrusions there.
Grenada
Freedom movements of the 1980s and 1990s include:
Tiananmen Square, The fall of the Berlin Wall, Anti-Apartheid in South Africa
1. Korean War
2. Cuban Missile Crisis
3.Soviet/Afghanistan War
4. Fall of the Berlin Wall
5. Vietnam War
6. Truman Doctrine announced
1. 1950-1963
2. 1962
3. 1979-1989
4. 1989
5. 1965-1975
6. 1947
1. John Kennedy
2. Nikita Khrushchev
3. Winston Churchill
4. Fidel Castro
1. U.S
2. Soviet Union
3. United Kingdom
4. Cuba
The United Nations finances itself through ______.
Voluntary contributions, membership fees
Japan has become one of the world’s most _________ nations since World War II.
Industrialized
The number-one goal of the Truman Doctrine was to stop _______ the spread of in the world.
Communism
Greece and Turkey were the first countries to receive aid under the Marshall Plan, partially to rebuild the countries but also to _________ Communism.
defeat
The main building of the United Nations is located in _____.
New York
What computer language was developed to fight the Cold War?
BASIC
The Marshall Plan was designed to _____.
bring unity to the European continent, stop Communist advances in the region, rebuild European industry
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Winston Churchill, likened Communism to a(n) _______ Curtain.
Iron
Which of the following sentences best summarizes why telecommunications is indebted to the Cold War?
All of our mobile devices use the satellite communications systems developed during the Cold War.
List eight different technologies we use today that are a result of the Cold War.
Satellites, lasers, missiles, programming languages, computer advancements, long distance calling, long range bombers, the internet.
What country was formed to give a home to hundreds of thousands displaced Jews after World War II?
Israel
All the knowledge and values shared by a society is called culture.
True
Nationalism can take on four forms. They are _____.
Political, Racial, Cultural, Religious
India was partitioned to create Pakistan, due to this form of nationalism.
Religious
This nation fought against the Dutch to gain its independence.
Indonesia
The Khmer Rouge was a government that killed millions of people in _____.
Cambodia
What did Sun Yat Sen believe China needed?
Freedom from foreign imperialism
In a well-rounded paragraph, analyze the rise of nationalism as seen in the ideas of Sun Yat Sen, Mustafa Kemal Attaturk, and Mohandas Ghandi. Use examples to discuss each leader’s ideology and approaches each used to achieve his goal. You may choose to conduct additional independent research to learn more about the leaders, to support your understanding.
Sun Yat Sen was a leader in the Chiense Revolution during the first part of the 20th century. The Revolution was to develop a sense of national identity while freeing China from the foreign imperialism and corrupt treaties, in Sun Yat Sen’s opinion. Mustafa Kemal Attaturk was a Turkish military leader who fought against the greeks. This helped him gained leadership which lead to him taking control of Turkey. His nationalism was to bring Turkey into the modern world, he initiated many many successful social and political reforms to that end. He brought about the emancipation of women which brought a whole problem of inferiority with women. Ghandi chose to take on nationalism differently, he started by gaining India’s independence from Great Britain. Ghandi chose to be peaceful instead of violent and did protests by boycotting companies, having hunger strikes, and sit-ins.
The Scramble for Africa really began due to European _____.
Political Control
Which of the following was not a condition of the Berlin Conference?
Slave trade would be continued to be allowed
One of the major problems in Africa today, involving war, famine, and disease is in the nation of _____.
Sudan
How have the governments of the Romans and Greeks influenced our modern Western governments?
by the development of representative government
The 1994 Cairo Conference addressed the main issue of _____.
Overpopulation
Which of the following was NOT a topic of the Cairo Conference?
Enslaving ethnic groups
Which of the following was NOT one of the ultimate goals of the Cairo Conference?
reduce male responsibility
Countries targeted by the Cairo Conference include _______.
countries ruled by strict sharia law
Which of the following are overpopulation issues?
possible global warming caused by pollution
spread of disease causing pandemics
Today, there are about how many people living on the earth?
6.6 billion
About how many babies are born per 1,000 people on the earth each year?
20
The “Scramble for Africa” had its roots in European _____.
Politics
What were three conditions of the Berlin Conference of 1884-85?
Africa would be divided among European nations and America.
The Congo would stay in Belgian hands.
Slave trade was prohibited.
What were three effects of European imperialism on Africa?
A long series of ethnic wars caused by different tribes being forced into one nation. Once they were able to claim their independence, they didn’t know how because of their inability to ever take place in government prior. Europeans left African’s with barely anything causing them to have nothing to trade with.
Which or the European Powers ruled over the largest amount of Africa in 1913?
France and Britain
The period of time when European imperialism greatly affected the continent of Africa is called the _____.
Scramble for Africa
Nazi Germany practiced this form of nationalism.
Ethnic
Stalin purged his government and country in the name of _______.
Communism
What two Eastern Bloc nations tried to break away from the Soviet Union in the 50s and 60s, only to be crushed?
Hungary and Czechoslovakia
Which of the following groups of people did Stalin’s purges target?
intellectuals
government dissidents
political enemies of Stalin
Poets
What was Mao’s big agricultural initiative that resulted in starving millions?
The Great Leap Forward
What are three Eastern Bloc nations?
Romania
Bulgaria
Poland
Which of the following saw peaceful resistance as the best way of achieving independence and a strong National identity?
Ghandi
What makes fundamentalism different from other religious expressions?
It is strict in its literal interpretation of holy scriptures.
How do Islamic terrorists justify their violent actions?
They believe they have “just cause.”
How did Bin Laden and Al Qaida attempt to appeal to Muslims worldwide?
They used well-known Islamic terminology.
Which of the following is the best description of the nature of terrorism?
It is like a virus; it adapts and changes.
In one hundred to one hundred and fifty words, discuss how the American people have responded to aid Middle Eastern independence.
The U.S. government helps by providing financial and humanitarian aid. This money is to help the government and the people from wars, natural disasters, etc. Sometimes they exchange their help for a promise to help America’s democracy. American’s also help by supporting charities and non-profit organizations. American’s do so many things to help the Middle Eastern gain independence for very little in return.
A ______________ economic system is characterized by much government involvement, lack of private ownership, and elimination of economic classes.
Planned
When one nation hires people from another country to do certain kinds of work, it is called _____.
Outsourcing
______ nations are those that do not have the resources to carry on productive trade agreements.
Developing
OPEC stands for _____.
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
The oil embargo of ________ forced the U.S. to ration gasoline for a time.
1973
Fortunately, oil prices are rarely affected by global events.
False
The four major goals of the United Nations are:
to prevent wars.
to promote human rights.
to increase the standard of living for all people.
to provide international law.
The name of the plan for reconstructing Europe following World War II was the _____.
Marshall Plan
The satellite nations of the Soviet Union were called the:
Eastern Bloc
In this unit, the term bipolar refers to a world that has ________ superpowers.
two
Place these Cold War events in the order they occurred.
1. Berlin Blockade
2. Cuban Missile Crisis
3.Vietnam War
4. SALT I talks
5. Afghanistan War
Which issue was not addressed at the 1994 Cairo Conference?
men’s social inequality
A society dominated by men is called _____.
patriarchal
Fundamentalism can be characterized in which of the following ways?
by a tendency to be more militant
by a stricter adherence to a set of beliefs
Private ownership, limited government involvement, and private investing are three characteristics of a ________ economic system.
Market
Mother Teresa changed the world primarily by________.
living her vow of poverty, charity, and humility
After the breakup of the Soviet Union, nearly every republic moved from a Communist economic system to a __________ one.
Mixed
Today, the United Nations consists of ________ members
132
OPEC stands for _____.
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
A blockade, airlift, and wall were all a part of this city during the Cold War.
Berlin
A society that is dominated by men is called _____.
patriarchal
The three basic economic systems are:
Market
Planned
Mixed
The Truman Doctrines top priority was to stop the spread of _____.
Communism
What does this map tell us about African independence?
South Africa, Morocco, and Ghana were independent.
Compare the maps below. Which map gives us the clearest picture of changes in African independence?
Map 2
Advancements during the Cold War brought development to which of the following fields?
griculture
telecommunications
computers
biomedicine
In 1994, the United Nations sponsored a conference in ______ to discuss overpopulation issues.
Cairo
What was the main setting of Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn’s Gulag Archipelago?
the islands to which Stalin’s prisoners were exiled
Four forms of nationalism are _____.
ethnic
political
religious
cultural
The United Nations has two main tasks:
keeping the peace
protecting human rights
This country surrendered after two atomic bombs were dropped on it.
Japan
What form of nationalism did Nazi Germany practice?
ethnic
Which of the following are overpopulation issues?
increased famine
energy shortages
Match the nation with its leader.
1. United Kingdom-Winston Churchill
2. Soviet Union – Mikhail Gorbachev
3. United States – Harry Truman
4. Cuba
4
Fidel Castro
Which of the following statements best summarizes the Communist Party membership?
Give your all for government, and the government will serve all.
How did Queen Elizabeth I rise to power?
She succeeded to the throne when her half-sister, Queen Mary I, died.
How did Margaret Thatcher get her nickname, the Iron Lady?
She was a very vocal opponent of the communist Iron Curtain.
Name three Eastern Bloc nations:
Poland
Bulgaria
Romania
Math the following terms to the correct description.
1. Muslim
2
describes one who has taken the religious or political stance to extremes
2. radicalized
3
use random violence and murder to instill fear
3. terrorists
1
follower of the Qur’an
Capitalism falls under a _______ economic system.
planned
How do terrorists justify their killing and violence in the name of Islam?
They believe that, since the West is inherently anti-God, they have just cause.
They believe that, since most Muslims do not follow a strict interpretation of the Qur’an, they are anti-God, and the terrorists have just cause.
Select the sentence below that best summarizes the American military response to radical Islam since 9/11.
It involves everything from diplomacy to the use of drones, and it changes as the nature of radical Islamic terrorism changes.
For the following issues, identify if each is a limitation of capitalism with a “C,” or a limitation of socialism with an “S.”
less freedom to choose your career-s

monopolies control both final good and labor prices-c

larger income inequality-c

no motivation to work harder or improve your output-s

Which of the following sentences best summarizes the impact of ancient Greece on the American way of life?
We have a representative form of government patterned after the Greek government.
Which of the following industries benefit from government subsidies?
oil companies
farms
Which of the following are examples of economic and social advances that the middle class worked to gain?
public education
laws forbidding child labor
When comparing the maps below, which shows the shift from European control to African independence?
Map A
Which of the following is an example of the Nationalistic ideas of the Turkish leader Mustafa Kemal Attaturk?
getting rid of oppressive British Rule
Why did the student protest at Tiananmen Square of 1989 fail?
The hardliners still had too much power.
Which of the following terms was part of the military negotiations of the Tehran Conference of 1942? Select all that apply.
If Bulgaria attacked Turkey, then Russia would come to Turkey’s aide and draw them into the war as an ally.
The demand for Germany’s “unconditional surrender.”
The two main reasons for finding another trade route were _____.
Religious, Economics
For a nation to prosper, it must ______ with its neighbors.
Trade
Brazil turned out to be very profitable for Portugal because of _____.
Gold
European slave trading became a major issue in the colony of _____.
Brazil
This explorer discovered a way around the African southern tip.
Dias
Two things that enabled the Portuguese to begin overseas exploration were:
advanced navigation techniques, better cartography
Portugal denied this explorer’s request to sail to the New World.
Columbus
The three main religions that were in conflict in Spain were _____.:
Jews, Catholics, Muslims
This explorer was looking for the Fountain of Youth in Florida.
Ponce De Leon
Under the encomienda system, victorious conquistadors were made _______ over the land.
Trustees
The ________ Exchange was the mass trading of flora, fauna, people, and diseases between the New World and Old World.
Columbian
Name three characteristics of the encomienda system.
Natives paid tribute to the conquistadors., Conquistadors became trustees of the land. Indigenous population got to keep their lands.
Two things that were introduced to the Old World from the New during the Columbian Exchange were _____.
Potatoes & Corn
In what ways did economic competition between countries “come at the expense of others”? Select all correct answers.
Countries paid taxes to each other. Competition was intense for economic control.
Imperialism needed two things to work. They were:
Land and Trade
The economic system where colonies supply goods to the mother country is called _____.
Mercantillism
The Seven Year’s War shifted the balance of power in favor of the _____.
English
English presence in India hastened the fall of the __________ Empire.
Mughal
England and France originally explored North America looking for the ____________ Passage to the Orient.
NorthWest
This company became the richest company on Earth.
Dutch East India Company
After the ___________ Rebellion, the British government took over political control of India.
Sepoy
Even though France lost its territories in North America and India, it was able to keep them in _____.
Indochina
The ‘divide and rule’ policy employed by the English was developed by the _____.
French
European imperialism was started by _____.
Portugal
This Portuguese explorer discovered Brazil.
Cabral
The two main kinds of slavery were _____.
indentured and chattel
This Spanish explorer is credited with discovering Cuba.
Columbus
France’s imperialistic manuevers focused on Indochina due to _______________.
loss of the seven year’s war
The African colony of Palmares was located in this country.
Brazil
What are two lasting legacies of Portugal’s history?
Many indigenous cultures lost their land.
It showed that a small country can make a big impact.
This Portuguese explorer is credited with discovering the route to India.
da Gama
The two Opium Wars were between China and _____.
England
This Spanish conquistador conquered the Incas.
Pizarro
The Buganda Empire is known today as _____.
Uganda
Russia’s age of imperialism included sea ports in the _____.
Black sea, pacific ocean
The printing press was invented by _____.
Johannes Gutenberg
A book about an ideal leader, The Prince, was written by _____.
Machiavelli
Thomas More, who died for what he believed in, coined the word _____.
Utopia
Michelangelo is known for:
Architectural work on St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome
A marble statue of David
Which scientist continued the work of another while studying the elliptical path of planets? Name both scientists.
Kepler advanced Copernicus’ work.
Which of these was Sir Isaac Newton not known for?
Invention of the microscope
Erasmus wrote a new version of _____.
the new testament
In your opinion, what were the social, economic, and political changes that most contributed to the rise of Florence and the ideas of Machiavelli? Answer in a well-developed paragraph of at least 150 words, giving specific historic facts to support your ideas.
Art was a big thing and all three of the great artist were from Italy. This created a period of time were art was a big things. It seemed like a lot of people started to question the church’s teaching, even though the majority of people were still catholic. People were also learning about new sciences such as the idea of heliocentric. There were many changes in this period and new science and art discovers flourished.
This enlightened monarch was an accomplished flutist, allowed freedom of the press, and made sure that judges were properly educated.
Frederick II
The God-given right to rule is called _____.
The Divine RIght
The first nation built on a capitalistic system was _____.
The Netherlands
The Magna Carta paved the way for a parliamentary form of government in _____.
England
This monarch reigned longer than any other major European leader, and he created the legal code of his country.
Louis XIV
The English Bill of Rights gave Parliament ___________ over government institutions and law.
sovereignty
According to the lesson, the lessening of punishment for a wrongdoing is called a (an) _____.
Indulgence
The Council of Trent was called to:
Reaffirm the Catholic Church’s teachings
_____ continued to be the primary religion of the Middle-East region.
Islam
These two major religions grew steadily because they were able to assimilate and coexist with other religions.
Buddhism and Hinduism
To change or improve something by correcting faults or removing abuses is to _____.
Reform
This Swiss reformer was killed in battle.
Ulrich Zwingli
Describe the purpose of the Counter-Reformation and the circumstances and outcomes of the Council of Trent. Include the role of the Jesuits in your assessment. Conduct independent research, as needed, to support your answer with specific historical information.
The catholic church admitted that they went to far and that they needed to continue and reinforce the teachings of their church. In addition, all clergy had to focus on the teachings and they had to recieve proper education. The church went to the Jesuits for help and they went on missionaries with them.
What worldview did most Europeans hold on to in the 16th century?
Geocentric
Galileo was perhaps best known for______________.
developing the telescope that could view details of the moon
Kepler fine-tuned Copernicus’ heliocentric model by______________.
determining that the planets rotate on an ellipse
The Scientific Revolution brought ________. Select all that apply.
a renewed understanding of humanity and our place in the universe, new scientific equipment, new laws that served as a basis for future scientific discovery
The Netherlands was the first nation built on _____.
Capitalism
Three famous artists during the Renaissance were _____.
Da Vinci,
Raphael,
Michelangelo
Three enlightened monarchs during the eighteenth century were:
Joseph II
Catherine the Great
Frederick II
What three major catastrophes struck Europe prior to the Protestant Reformation?
the Great Famine
the Hundred Years’ War
the Black Plague
_____ is credited with starting the Church of Scotland during the Reformation.
John Knox
Niccolo Machiavelli’s famous work, The _______ , was about the qualities that made an ideal leader.
Prince
The German theologian _____ is credited with beginning the Protestant Reformation.
Martin Luther
The idea of the sun in the middle of the solar system, with planets orbiting around it originated with whom?
Copernicus
The theologian _____ was the first to translate the Bible into his native English.
John Wycliffe
In its early history, the Netherlands relied on these two corporations for money and in some ways, protection:
Dutch East India Company
Dutch West India Company
Which of the following provisions was NOT a part of the English Bill of Rights?
The crown may create new taxes without approval of Parliament.
The two events that helped bring about the Renaissance were:
The Crusades
The printing press
The Glorious Revolution saw which monarch flee the country and his crown?
James II
Which statement best summarizes the interplay between individualism and Christianity?
The greatest danger to faith was following traditional teachings of the Church without understanding the teachings of Christ Himself.
Why was the Council of Trent organized?
The power and reach of the Catholic Church was severely compromised.
This Mughal emperor was the one who agreed to allow the English to set up a base of operations for trade in India.
Jahangir
Humayun ruled the empire twice, and in the second reign he was able to ______________.
Secure the borders well
The Taj Mahal was built by this emperor for a tomb.
Shah Jahan
Which of the following was not a reason for the fall of the Mughal Empire?
famine and natural disaster
This Mughal leader desecrated Hindu temples and forced people to convert to Islam.
Aurangzeb
Place the emperors of the Mughal Empire in the order they appeared.
earliest: Babur
second: Humayun
third: Akbar
fourth: Jahangir
fifth: Shah Jahan
sixth: Aurangzeb
This present-day nation was home to the Ottoman Empire.
Turkey
The two holiest cities of Islam are _____.
Mecca and Medina
What are two factors that hastened the end of the Ottoman Empire?
falling behind in military tactics and weaponry
the development of European overseas trade
The name of the powerful military force in the Ottoman Empire was _____.
Janissary Corps
The Byzantine capital of Constantinople had its name changed to ________ after it fell to the Ottomans.
Istanbul
The Safavid employed two __________ to help modernize their military.
Englishmen
The formation of cultures and societies has gone through a progression of steps. Place these steps in order.
first:
second:
third:
fourth:
fifth:
Bipolar
a world with two superpowers; i.e. the United States and Soviet Union
Capitalism
an economic system based on private ownership and competition motivated by profit
Communism
a classless society where control of wealth and property belongs to the state
Culture
all the knowledge and values shared by a society
Diversity
variety in a group such as gender, ethnicity, and economics
Ethnic
a group sharing distinctive cultural traits
Fundamentalism
a religious movement based on a literal interpretation of a doctrine
Globalization
the process of conducting business on a global scale
Imperalism
policy extending political, economic, or military rule over another
Multipolar
a world with many great powers; i.e. 19th century England, France, Germany, Spain, Netherlands
Nationalism
a strong sense of love and devotion toward a nation
Socialism
an economic system where all business is controlled by people who share equally in the profits
Apartheid
a South African social policy of racial segregation involving political, economic, and legal discrimination against non-whites
Bolshevik
a member of the left-wing majority group of the Russian Social Democratic Workers’ Party
Bourgeoisie
the middle class
Cubism
a revolutionary movement in art that deconstructed an object into its parts then put them back to together using angles, shapes and unrealistic imagery
Ego
the self that develops defense mechanisms deal with the ravenous appetites of the id.
Euthanasia
practice of ending the life of an individual suffering from an incurable condition, as by lethal injection or withholding medical treatment
Id
the most primitive urges for gratification in the infant, no logic
Genocide
the systematic killing of a people group by another
Holocaust
the systematic mass slaughter of European Jews and others in Nazi concentration camps during World War II
Liberalism
a political orientation that favors social progress by reform and by changing laws rather than by revolution
Menshevik
a member of the liberal minority group of the Russian Social Democratic Party
Pragmatism
a way of thinking that is more concerned with results than with theories
Proletariat
the poorest class of working people in society
The Plan de Iguala was designed to guarantee _____.
an independent Mexico with a constitutional monarchy
Catholicism as Mexico’s state religion
Who issued the “Grito de Dolores”?
Miguel Hidalgo
In 1824, Mexico became __________
a Republic
The United Provinces of Central America was established after Central America seceded from ___________
Mexico
What country controlled the land at the time of Brazil’s independence in 1822?
Portugal. Brazil was colonized by Portugal
In Haiti, Vincent Oge demanded the right to _____.
Vote
When it was a French colony, Haiti was called _____.
St. Domingue
People who were of European ancestry that were born in the Americas were called _____.
Creoles
Select all issues that led to the French Revolution.
resentment toward French monarchy
an economic crisis in France
resentment toward social structures
What contributed to France’s financial crisis in the late 1700s?
the lavish spending of the royal court
aid given to the U.S. colonists
The storming of the Bastille occurred _____.
after members of the third estate declared themselves to be the National Assembly
Why did Louis XVI call a meeting of the Estates General?
to discuss France’s tax system
The French middle class and peasantry belonged to the ________Estate.
Third
The 1791 French constitution limited the powers of the _____.
French Monarch
The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen _____.
declared freedom of speech, press, and religion
was modeled after the U.S. Declaration of Independence
Who was the leader of the Committee of Public Safety?
Maximilien Robespierre
During the French Revolution, radicals _____.
wanted to establish a french republic
Olympe de Gouges wrote a “Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen” in 1791, declaring that women were also citizens and should have rights equal to those of men. She was then_________________.
executed by the guillotine
What currently practiced ideology has its roots in the French Revolution?
Socialism
Who became king of France after Napoleon was exiled?
Louis XVIII
Autocratic rule was seen in Russia as
rule by a single leader with unrestrained power.
Russian czars eliminated opposition to their rule by relying on _____.
strict censorship
a secret police force
Where did Czar Nicholas I exile suspected dissenters?
Siberia
In 1900, the majority of Russia’s population belonged to the _____.
Peasantry
The Trans-Siberian Railway covered a distance from Eastern Europe to ______________
the PAcific
What nations claimed to protect Christian interests in the Ottoman Empire?
France and Russia
Why did the British participate in the Crimean War?
They did not want the Russians to control the Black Sea.
Participants in the Decembrist Revolt wanted to establish _____.
a constitutional monarchy
Alexander III’s program of Russification _____.
targeted the empire’s non-Russian population
emphasized the use of the Russian language
As a result of the 1905 Revolution, _____.
political parties were banned
This became the universal language with changes done by the Romans.
Latin
Aristotle’s teacher was _____.
Plato
Early alphabets, such as the Semitic, established shapes for sounds of consants. The Greeks added vowels and _____________ spread among Greek speaking populations.
Literacy
Reasons why Kush is considered a satellite of Egypt are:
Their pyramids and tombs are similar.
They had similar religious beliefs and gods.
Their art and architecture were much the same.
Reasons why Kush was its own distinct culture include:
development of own language
religious beliefs that predate Egypt
The world’s oldest recognized monarchy is found in _____.
Kush
The single most important event in Jewish history is the Jews’ exodus from _____.
Egypt
The three main kings during the golden age of Israel were _____.
David, Solomon, Saul
The Hebrew nation was split into two parts: _____.
Israel and Judah
In what order did the four Diasporas mentioned in the lesson occur?
first: Assyrian
second: Babylonian
third: Greek
fourth: Roman
The Jewish state ended at the hands of the Romans in A.D. _____.
70
This tribe migrated across Africa bringing iron technology with it.
Bantu
Two things societies with iron technology developed socially are _____.
divisions of labor
hierarchical social classes
The Xiongnu and Scythians greatly influenced this region.
Central Asia
The Asiatic Huns were also known as the _____.
Xiongnu
Most of what we know about the Scythians comes from the _____.
Romans and Greeks
The Xiongnu Empire rose in power and trade even after the Chinese attempted to block its influence by:
Building the Great Wall
Nomadic tribes and civilizations were conquered and absorbed into the the Xiongnu Empire. This brought the empire more _______.
territory
natural resources
trading routes
The Jewish Torah is composed of _____ books.
Five
Plato’s student was _____.
Aristotle
The Scythians and Xiongnu were _____ societies.
Nomadic
Judaism, like Christianity and Islam, traces its roots to _____.
Abraham
Some of the benefits of iron technology in agriculture include:
More land could be cleared.
More diverse crops could be grown.
Evidence seems to suggest that the art of metallurgy began in _____.
Africa
Place these languages in the order they appeared.
first: Egyptian
second: Semitic
third: Phoenician
fourth: Greek
fifth: Roman
Match the Jewish description of God with its meaning.
1. omnipotent; all powerful
2. omniscient; all knowing
3. omnipresent; in all places at all times
The _____ language was spoken in Egypt.
Coptic
Which of these regions was NOT influenced by the Scythians?
Africa
The sacred book of Judaism is called the _____.
Torah
The Scythians divided into what two branches?
Iranian and Indian
This leader made all citizens over thirty eligible to serve on the council and gave more power to the Citizen Assembly.
Cleisthenes
This first Athenian reform leader established the Citizen’s Assembly, forbade enslavement for debts, and made fathers responsible for seeing that their sons learned a trade.
Solon
The alliance of Greek city-states was called the _____.
Delian League
The defining moment in Greek history is the _____ Wars.
Persian
This battle eliminated Persian influence in Greece and Athens.
Salamis Bay
Plato’s famous teacher was _____.
Socrates
A civilization whose impact can be felt on history for a very long time is called _____.
Classical
_______ is considered the father of Greek tragedy.
Aeschylus
The introduction of female characters in plays is attributed to _____.
Euripides
The Socratic method is named after this Greek philosopher.
Socrates
Inductive reasoning is attributed to _____.
Aristotle
From the lesson, the discovery of philosophy can be attributed to the _____.
Egyptians
Which of the regions or nations did Alexander not conquer?
Italy and China
After Alexander’s death, Greece and Macedonia were ruled by _____.
Antipater
Alexander the Great eventually established his administrative headquarters at _____.
Babylon
Alexander was the son of _____.
Phillip II
After Alexander’s death, Egypt was ruled by _____.
Ptolemy
The philosophy that believed pleasure was the greatest aim in life was called _____.
Epicureanism
This philosophy believed it was important to completely control one’s passions and emotions.
Stoicism
The _______ is considered the sacred text and holy scriptures of Zoroastrianism
Avesta
Many regard Zoroastrianism as the first ______ religion in the world.
Monotheistic
Herodotus is famous for writing _____.
The histories
A _______ was a Persian provincial governor.
Satrap
The location of the famous stand by three hundred Spartans against the Persian army is called _____.
thermoplyae
The way of life where a person withdraws from society to devote self to prayer and solitude is called _____.
Monasticism
Match the Persian leader with his notable achievement or defeat.
1. Cyrus; respected the customs and religions of the people he conquered
2. Cambyses; one of the few generals in history to ever conquer and occupy Egypt
3. Darius; was defeated by the Greeks at the Bay of Marathon
4. Xerxes; was defeated by the Greeks at the Bay of Salamis
One of the legends surrounding the origins or Rome involves two brothers _____.
Romulus and Remus
The early Roman government was a ________
Monarchy
Roman society was composed of two groups:
Plebeians
Patricians
The rulers of Italy before the Romans were the _____.
Etruscans
Which of the following was not one of the Roman Senate’s powers in the early days?
exercise complete control over the common people or plebeians
The First Triumvirate consisted of _____.
Crassus
Pompey
Julius Caesar
This Roman leader was assassinated in 46 B.C.
Julius Caesar
The end to the Roman Republic occurred when _______ came to power.
Caesar Augustus
The plays of Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides reflected the social values and attitudes of classical Greeks yet one introduced strong female characters in his plays. Which playwright was bold enough to do so and select his play.
Euripides, in “The Bacchae.”
The library at _____ in Egypt became the center of research, literature, and science.
Alexandria
The Greek philosophy of exploring all possibilities and examples before reaching a conclusion is called _____.
Inductive Reasoning
Alexander’s kingdom was split into _____ major parts.
Three
The famous philosophy work the Republic, which envisioned a utopia, was written by _____.
Plato
_____ is considered the “Father of History.”
Herodotus
The ancient _____ are traditionally credited with being the discoverers of philosophy. However, they probably picked up philosophy from the Egyptian culture.
Greeks
The four books of the New Testament that detail the life and teachings of Jesus are called _____.
Gospels
Christianity is a _______ religion.
Monotheistic
The sacred text of Christianity is the Bible which is composed of the _____.
The new and old testaments
Emperor ________ established the Edict of Milan in 313.
Constantine
What Indian ruler was converted to Buddhism?
Ashoka
The ________ depicts the role and status of women in Indian society.
Ramayana
Chandragupta rebelled against the governors of _____.
Alexander
What things did the Han Dynasty standardize?
Writing, Weights and measure
The state religion of the Han Dynasty was _____.
Confucianism
The main trade route that connected China with Rome was called the _____.
Silk Road
The Olmec civilization was located in _____.
Mesoamerica
What is NOT a reason for the Olmec civilization to be the “mother culture” of later Mesoamerican societies?
the use of the wheel
What form of government is a republic?
Representative
The Greek polis began as ____________.
a settlement along the Adriatic and Mediterranean that developed its own governing style
The Greek polis was a city-state with _____.
an agora, where trade and other commerce occurred
The Roman Republic was begun by ______________.
the establishment of a representative government
Which of the following shows how the Greek city-states and the Roman Republic were similar? Select all that apply.
Both began with settlements in city-states in close proximity
Both had representative forms of government
Ancient Greek and Roman societies made sense of their world through _____.
a polytheistic mythology
Which Roman god is most like Hades?
Pluto
Roman gods and goddesses tended to be more heroic and interested in the afterlife. What were Greek gods and goddesses more interested in?
Manipulating lovers
Engaging the human world
Physical beauty
The origins of Roman mythology lay in __________
Greek Mythology
A person who believes things that contradict a religion’s doctrine is called a _____.
Heretic
The two classical civilizations of ancient India were the:
Gupta
Maurya
The laws of Rome were written down in 450 B.C. and called the _____.
twelve tables
The title of Christ was given to Jesus from the Greek word for _____.
savior
Siddhartha Gautama founded the religion of _____.
Buddhism
The Etruscans ruled this region before the Romans.
Italy
The two hundred years of Roman Peace (30 B.C. – A.D. 235) is called _____.
Pax Romana
Confucianism was the state religion of the _____ Dynasty.
Han
Pompey, Crassus, and Julius Caesar composed the _____.
First Triumvirate
The name Olmec means _____.
Rubber people
In ancient Greek democracy, women were ______.
subject to their husbands or fathers
Great stone head sculptures are one of the legacies of this civilization.
olmec
The Han Dynasty (202 B.C. – A.D. 8; A.D. 25-220) consisted of two parts called the _____.
former and latter
The Greek gods and goddesses were believed to live on ________
Mount Olympus
Egypt and Kush believed in a form of religion.
Polytheistic
Ashoka was the famous king of who renounced violence.
Maurya
This Roman issued the Edict of Milan, which formally established tolerance for all religions.
Constantine
They invented a 365-day calendar and rubber balls.
Olmecs
When Caesar Augustus came to power, this form of government disappeared from Rome.
Republic
This civilization introduced the world to democracy.
Greece
Siddhartha Gautama founded the _____ religion.
Buddhist
The Bantu tribe migrated across Africa, bringing with them _____ technology.
Iron
This man is considered the “Father of History.”
Herodotus
The exodus from Egypt is this religion’s most important event.
Judaism
The ancient language of _____ is called Sanskrit.
India
This Chinese thinker’s beliefs were adopted by the Han Dynasty and used as part of a civil service examination to gain employment in the government.
Confusius
How did rule by a few, or a small group, work in the city-states of Italy?
Oligarchies governed through councils and elected officials.
Many of today’s basic human rights have roots in classical traditions and religions, including which of the following?
equality before the law
innocent until proven guilty
trial by a jury of your peers
The two Persian leaders who tried to conquer Greece were:
Xerxes and Darius I
The “Father” of Christianity, Islam, and Judaism is _____.
Abraham
The Pax Romana (30 B.C. – A.D. 235) was two hundred years of Roman _____.
Peace
The Hellenistic period followed the reign of _____.
Alexander the Great
Which of the following best demonstrates how the societies of the Greek polis and the Roman Republic differed?
Greek city-states were composed of individual societies with unique governance and structure, while Rome was centered on a collection of city-states.
The three important reasons for studying history are _____.
to reveal past contributions of civilizations
to connect the past to the present
to recognize patterns
Recognizing patterns helps you to _____.
avoid making mistakes in the future
understand human nature and behavior
History is the story of the interaction between _____.
environment
ideas
people
An archaeologist studies _____.
early human culture and development compared to the present day
A geologist studies _____.
the earth, rock forms, and strata
What makes historians unique? Select all correct responses.
Historians present the past to the present to learn from mistakes and successes.
Historians write, as accurately as possible, stories of past people, places, and events.
Historians want to discover, study, and interpret new findings.
Historians use the historic method to draw conclusions of history and how it affects us.
To properly study the human race’s past, all five types of historians should be used.
True
History is more than a series of events. It is a _______ of events.
Record
A firsthand report or eyewitness account is an example of what type of data source?
Primary
Why are secondary sources important to the study of history?
These sources provide information written by other authors.
An example of data that a historian would use is _____.
Pictorial data
What process has the historian followed when testing the accuracy of the source against other facts and outside data?
External criticism
Which difficult position might historians find themselves in?
wanting to add their own perspective or bias to the writing
Click here to view an actual (partial) record of passengers who arrived at the Port of New York during the Irish Famine, created in 1977-1989. It includes passengers from 1846 to 1849.
Which of the following integrates quantitative analysis into qualitative analysis, based on the above record of passengers?
understanding how many single young men traveled to America in hope of a better life
Choose the best answer to complete this sentence: The illustration of the basketball game shows _____.
that one event can be viewed from many perspectives
Based on the information in this lesson, how is history like the basketball game? Select all that apply.
It is hard to determine how events happen.
Historians use clues to piece together events.
Which of the following statements would best describe the common elements of most historical events?
Common elements involve change, advance, or conflict
How does the historian affect history?
The bias of historians will affect the way they record events.
How would an historian best respond to the comment, “History is simply a series of events in chronological order.”
True, with fascinating information of who, whay, where, why, and possibly some bias and perspective of the writer that we can explore.
How do the Five Elements of Historic Events work together for viewing history?
By remembering the 5 W’s, a historian can connect information of an event.
When studying history, asking questions and checking other sources will improve one’s perspective. What other awareness is necessary?
To realize all writers and reporters have some bias of culture, geography, economics, or politics.
Which of the following is NOT a primary source?
recent book about the Civil War
People who discover, study, interpret, and write history are called _____.
historians
Historians must have certain qualities of character, such as _____.
Accuracy and honesty
Historians are concerned with accuracy of their writings and readings but are also aware of
biases, perspectives, beliefs, and a variety of other differences.
Who, what, when, where, and why are elements of _____.
historic events
What things can cause a person to be biased?
religious views
political views
upbringing
country lived in
An anthropologist studies _____.
early human culture and development compared to the present day
A secondary source might be _____.
a documentary made ten years later
Historians seek to interpret historic sites, artifacts, written records, and verbal histories without adding their own what?
Biases of interpretation
The dating of artifacts is done by a _____-age system based on the development of tools and technology.
three
Absolute dating can be determined by which of the following. Select all that apply.
tree-ring patterns
Earth’s magnetic field
coral growth cycle
radioactivity
Relative dating helps to determine __________.
chronological order
How are anthropologists able to make generalizations about human behavior?
knowing the regularities in human custom
What best describes a rite of passage?
a ceremony that marks passing stages in life
Which of the following are rites of passage, according to Arnold van Gennep? Select all that apply.
marriage
puberty
death
birth
What best defines anthropology?
science of people
What did economic stability lead to in the Neolithic Revolution?
political systems
The length of time hunter-gatherers stayed in one region depended on _____.
climate conditions
available food
amount of stored food
The era in which early humans made tools is called the _____.
Paleolithic Age
Place the species in the order in which they appeared on Earth.
first: Australopithecines
second: Homo Habillis
third: Homo erectus
fourth: Neanderthais
fifth: Homo Sapiens
What is the first species of humans found outside Africa?
Homo erectus
What species first appeared to walk upright?
Australopithecines
What species may have been the first to use crude tools?
Homo Habillis
The origin of the human species appears to be in _____.
Africa
What are the three theories for the emergence of Homo sapiens? Select all that apply.
Assimilation model
Multiregional Continuity model
Out-of-Africa model
The _____ model suggests that living humans came from the species Homo erectus and that their development took place throughout the world.
Multiregional Continuity
The _____ model suggests that Homo sapiens migrated to Europe and Asia replacing populations descended from Neanderthals and older Homo erectus. Select all that apply.
Out-of-Africa
Three of the common characteristics of hunter-gatherer communities are _____. Select all that apply.
their communities were small in size
they possessed knowledge of plants and animals
they possessed the knowledge of tools and fire
Much of the evidence we have on early humans comes from _____.
Cro-Magnon
The two main factors that influenced the development of humans were _____.
environment and geography
Complete the following sentence: Many linguists agree language developed in two stages, beginning with ____________________.
“sentences” of noises making up something meaningful
The majority of linguists believe a mother language originated somewhere in _____.
Eurasia
The study of human language includes the study of _____.
syntax
meaning
structure
The ability to learn and transfer knowledge to others is called _____.
collective learning
Three early forms of communication were _____.
hieroglyphs
petroglyphs
cuneiform
The Paleolithic Age is also known as the _____.
Old stone age
Homo erectus is believed to be the first confirmed species found outside of _____.
Africa
Linguists agree the ability to speak a language sets humans apart from other animals because we can: ______.
have rules for our sentences
invent languages
borrow words from other languages, use grammar, use abstract terms including past and future
Collective learning is the ability to learn and transfer _____ to others.
Knowledge
The procedure of comparing cultural similarities as well as differences among societies is called the _____.
Comparative method
Ancient rock paintings have been found in _____.
Spain and France
What made the climate of northern Africa change from tropical to grasslands, and then to desert?
Ice ages
Today, there are between _____ languages spoken on Earth.
5,000 and 6,000
What resulted from the planting of crops in the beginnings of human society?
Economic stability
Early plants that were domesticated are _____.
Wheat, Rye, Barley
Disease is easier to spread in _____ society.
an agrarian
What is the best choice for why agrarian societies included gender inequality?
In larger groups of people, organization was essential to survival; men took the more powerful role.
Five characteristics of hunter-gatherer societies were _____.
healthier and better diets
few social changes
little problem with spread of disease
more dangers from animals and accidents
few technological changes
Five characteristics of agrarian societies were _____.
rapid technological advances
less leisure time
extra food during winter
freedom to work different jobs
depletion of the soil
Some of the artifacts that hint at religious rituals include _____.
Jewelry, pottery
How did the receding ice age help with the development of agrarian societies?
Warmer climate created better growing conditions.
Some of the artifacts that hint at religious rituals include _____.
jewelry
pottery
greenstone amulets
Population growth and the domestication of plants and animals brought on new cultural changes, such as _____.
gender inequality
emergence of new social classes
greater need for protection
What is meant by the term aquaculture?
cultivation of water animals, such as eels and fish
Evidence of more sophisticated religious beliefs includes _____.
buildings constructed for public purposes
placement of human remains
Four characteristics of hunter-gatherer societies are _____.
people were nomadic
healthier diets
few technological advances
more dangerous lifestyle
Read the following events. Which happened last?
Humans moved from hunter-gatherers to agricultural settlements.
The steps of the historical method include:
analysis of data
synthesis of data
reporting conclusions
Interpretation of data based on one’s own perspective can lead to ________________.
Preconceived ideas
How can an historian acknowledge personal bias yet stay true to the historic method?
An historian may keep asking more questions, keep searching other sources, and keep writing.
We know for certain that early humans were first _____.
hunter-gatherers
The evolution of language paralleled the growth of _____ societies.
agrarian
The historical method uses what six elements?
collecting data
interpreting data
analyzing data
drawing conclusions based on evidence
classifying data
reporting data
Three early forms of written communication were:
hieroglyphs.
petroglyphs.
cuneiform
The age in which early humans made tools is called the _____.
Paleolithic Age
Prehistory can be described as _____.
the time prior to the use of written records
Three things that affect a historian’s perspective on past events are _____.
upbringing
political views
religious views
Diseases spread more easily in agrarian societies due to which of the following?
Living in societies meant living closer to other people and sharing resources in close contact.
What are the three most important reasons for studying history?
recognizing patterns
connecting the past to the present
revealing past contributions of civilizations
Historians are concerned with accuracy of their writings and readings but are also aware of __________.
biases, perspectives, beliefs, and a variety of other differences
Agrarian societies were based around _____.
agriculture
Examples of primary sources would include _____.
letters, artifacts, human remains
The steppes of Ukraine and southern Russia are important for what reason?
It is where farming communities first began.
When rivers overflowed their banks, what would have happened in the Neolithic Era?
Wild animals would have come to drink.
Plants would have naturally grown.
Farming communities would have taking advantage of the bounty and established habitations around them.
Which of the following statements best describes the first people to use language?
They were pastoral people who traveled according to the needs of their herds.
The idea of farming took shape in many areas of the world. How do we know this?
Archaeologists have excavated different regions with findings of very early agriculture.
Some of the things archaeologists study to gather information about early agrarian societies are _____.
tools
pollen grains
animal and human remains
What are some of the characteristics of the six agrarian societies mentioned in this chapter?
control of water through dams or canals
advanced ideas or beliefs on death and burial
evidence of metal tools and weapons
many buildings used for a variety of reasons
What was the key element that led people to settle into an agricultural lifestyle?
a ready-made and reliable water source
The first great leap for humans was _____.
fire
Early civilizations developed along major rivers about 11,000 years ago. Which of the following was included as a consequence of early civilizations? Select all correct responses.
Governments and religion
Mathematics and astronomy
Some scholars believe that before they can have true civilization, societies must develop _____.
Cities
Select two items that a civilization must have before cities can exist.
Large population of farmers
Enough food
The modern state is normally held to be _____ development.
A recent
The tools and processes to make things and to satisfy human needs is the definition of _____.
Technology
The invention that made food production more efficient was the _____.
Plow
The interdependence of an advanced society demands the division or specialization of _____.
Labor
Isolated, self-sufficient economic units mark a more _____ economy.
primitive
Choose the polytheistic civilizations: (Select all that apply)
Greeks
Romans
Egyptians
Indians
Select four elements of civilization.
Technology
Division of labor
Commerce and trade
(Missing one)
Put the progress of early humans in the correct order of occurrence.
1. first; discovered fertile valleys
2. second; settled down and developed agrarian societies
3. third; domesticated animals
4. fourth; developed agriculture
5. fifth; formed communities and civilizations
Ancient Egypt was concentrated along the _____.
Nile River
The Indus Valley is situated between what two nations?
Pakistan and India
The Indus Valley civilization was known for its _____.
Streets in a grid of rectangles
(Partial)
The economy of these early civilizations was based on _____.
Agriculture
Who owned everything in Egypt?
Pharaoh
Match the civilization with its famous architecture.
1. Egypt: Pyramids
2. Mesopotamia; Ziggurats
3. Indus Valley; Water tank and citadels
The Epic of Gilgamesh was the product of the _____ civilization.
Mesopatamian
This civilization invented a form of writing called hieroglyphics.
Egypt
A kind of writing that used pictures of objects is called _____.
Pictographs
Cuneiform was a writing system developed by the _____.
Sumerians
The Code of Hammurabi consisted of _____.
A set of laws
The Indus Valley civilization did much of its writing on _____.
Seals
Which civilization’s writing has never been decoded?
Harappan
Which of the following did the Code of Hammurabi regulate?
marriage
slavery
farming
slander
Once there was a food surplus, complexity within early river civilizations increased, as did __________, according to the archaeological record.
Trade and commerce
The main economic activity of Egyptian, Harappan, and Sumerian civilizations was _____.
Agriculture
What were the names of the two groups the Egyptians traded with in Africa?
Kushites and Nubians
What are some inventions or ideas that helped to advance trade?
flat-bottomed boats
carts driven by animals
seagoing vessels
What new social classes emerged due to advancements in agriculture?
artisans, laborers, and merchants
Trade and commerce between civilizations helped to _____.
exchange new ideas
spread languages
share new inventions
Trade brought people together with the exchange of goods, raw materials, and ideas. This was possible due to:
Advancements in communication
One example of a moral code would be _____.
Code of Hammurabi
Monotheistic means _____.
Belief in one god
Which river system is NOT a location of the first civilizations?
Yangtze
The Mesopotamia region was famous for what architecture?
Ziggurats
The economy of early civilizations was based around _____.
Agriculture
What nation was called “the gift of the Nile”?
Egypt
Sumer was located in a region called _____.
Mesopotamia
Cuneiform is a type of _____.
Writing
This ancient book tells the story of a mythical king and a worldwide flood.
The Epic of Gilgamesh
What was needed as a surplus to help create trade between cultures?
Crops
Trade was foundational to the growth of cities because it ______.
guaranteed an exchange of goods and ideas
An advanced society is marked by _____.
Commerce and Trade
What was the punishment for the majority of the first 26 laws?
Death
What type of civilization was Babylon, according to the following law from the Code of Hammurabi?

38. A chieftain, man, or one subject to quit-rent cannot assign his tenure of field, house, and garden to his wife or daughter, nor can he assign it for a debt.

agrarian
Why was the development of mathematics important in Egyptian society?
It helped regulate commerce and trade.
Taxes could be more accurately assessed.
Better buildings could be built.
List the social classes of the Shang Dynasty in order.
top level: Nobles
second level: Priests
third level: Craftsmans
bottom level: Peasants/ slaves
The most significant contribution of the Shang Dynasty was _____.
Writing
The mythical culture that turned out to be real was called the _____.
Xia
Both the Shang Dynasty and the Xia Dynasty were located along which river?
Yellow River
_____ offered strong evidence of the existance of the Xia Dynasty.
Uncovering artifacts of an advanced society
This region is thought to be the birthplace of the plow, around 3000 B.C.
Mesopotamia
Three benefits of the plow are _____.
greater possible yields
the use of residue of the remaining crops as fertilizer
a reduced amount of weeds
Rice is the world’s third-largest crop behind _____.
Wheat and Corn
It is believed rice originated in the regions of _____.
China
The island of Crete was inhabited by the _____.
Minoans
Early seafaring trade centered on the _____.
Mediterranean Sea
What was an essential key factor in the development of civilization during this period?
reliable trade networks
The Chinese dynasty that followed the Xia was called _____.
Shang
Which was NOT a member of early Chinese social classes?
Scribes
What pattern was set for future Chinese dynasties?
son or closest relative rules after the king dies
Choose the best historical explanation of oracle bones.
Royal use of questioning the future on a bone that later provided evidence of writing of the Shang Dynasty.
The most important contribution of the Shang Dynasty was _____.
Writing
Three early trading cultures along the Mediterranean Sea were _____.
Crete, Byblos, Ugarit
How is the humble plow, one of the most important inventions in history, is important to farmers? Select all correct responses.
It turns the top soil and any remaing crop over, producing fertilizer.
It breaks up the soil for easier planting.
By turning over the soil, weeds are reduced.
The Minoans inhabited the island of _____.
Crete
Shang Dynasty craftsmen were known for their _____.
All of the above
The majority of Shang Dynasty writing was done on _____.
Bamboo
Early traders navigated the seas with the help of the _____.
North Star
Crete was the crossroads that linked what three cultures?
Africa, Asia, Europe
The Minoan civilization is known for _____.
architecture
silk
agriculture
(Partial)
Which of the following were advanced by trade in the second millennium? Select all that apply.
civilizations
cultural exchanges
mercantilism
language development
The world’s population today is more than 7 billion people living _____________________.
anywhere on the earth
Trace historic reasons for the increase in global populations by selecting all correct answers.
Around 8,000 BC people learned to farm and raise animals.
In the 15th century, plants from the Americas were taken to Europe to provide new foods.
Life expectancy increased with treatment for diseases.
What was an effect of the discovery of the New World in the late fifteenth century?
global exchange of plant life
Which of the following could affect the human population?
A deadly virus emerges that can pass from human to human.
A civil war breaks out in Italy.
The forced transport of Africans to the Americas as part of the Atlantic slave trade was an example of which factor affecting population?
international migration
In 2004, a tsunami affected the population of _____.
Asia
Why is most of the growth in global population seen in developing countries?
Due to sanitation and agricultural advances, yet poverty and lack of family planning.
In the 1970s, how did the Chinese government seek to limit the country’s population growth?
by encouraging families to have one child each
From this lesson, in what ways have some nations tried to educate their populations regarding the number of children that couples have?
by producing posters
by creating television ads
If most of the population growth in the future is expected to take place in developing countries, predict what effects this will likely have.
People in these countries will live in poverty.
There will be an increase in demand for access to basic goods and services.
An infectious disease outbreak that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a large number of the population is called a(n):
Pandemic
Deadly pandemics have claimed lives around the world for hundreds of years with the most recent influenza pandemic being
The Spanish Flu of 1918
Why did the 1918 outbreak of the Spanish flu cause so many deaths?
The influenza virus was a strain to which people had no immunity.
An account of the first recorded pandemic in human history was written by _____.
Thucydides
While the threat of future pandemics is present, how can countries prepare to protect their population? Select all correct responses.
Invest in vaccine research
Maintain a supply of anti-viral medications
Create an alert system
(Partial)
A group of volunteers in San Francisco began making a quilt in 1987 to honor their friends and family members who had died of _____.
AIDS
Where have the highest number of HIV infections been reported?
Sub-Saharan Africa
What is likely to happen to a country’s economy if its population is affected by a disease pandemic?
Economic productivity would decline.
HIV is the virus that causes ________________.
AIDS
What is the most deadly viral disease that scientists know of?
Ebola
Experts predict that a future disease outbreak will spread _______________ because much of the world’s population lives in crowded urban areas.
Rapidly
How did the Industrial Revolution change society? Select all the correct responses.
People moved from rural areas into cities to be closer to factories.
Disease spread easily with people living closer together.
Educational facilities were needed so workers would learn to read and write.
Housing for workers was needed.
What new technologies can be used as forces for good as well as for evil?
artificial intelligence
biomedical technologies
agricultural technologies
drones
Which of the following explains how medical technology is changing our modern society?
the use of tissue and organ transplants
the use of laser technologies to avoid open-heart surgery
There were widespread agrarian societies during the _______ era.
Neolithic
Hierarchical societies became more organized during the ________ era.
Neolithic
A characteristic of this era was the introduction of pottery.
Mesolithic
What are three characteristics of the agricultural revolution?
New tools made it possible for more crops to be grown.
Larger cities became a reality.
Farmers learned to control water through wells and canals.
Match the inventor with his invention.
1. Fox Talbot- photographs
2. Isaac Singer- sewing machine
3. Etienne Lenoir- gasoline engine
4. Alfred Nobel- dynamite
5. Wilhelm Roentgen- x-rays
In what areas did major changes take place during the Industrial Revolution?
mining
manufacturing
textiles
What are three characteristics of the Agricultural Revolution?
Larger cities became a reality.
New tools made it possible for more crops to be grown.
Farmers learned to control water through canals and wells.
Which of the following is an “old” country and has a declining population?
Japan
Pandemics are a spread of disease covering ________________________.
a very wide geographic area
Which of the following could affect the human population?
An ethnic war breaks out in Eastern Europe.
A deadly virus starts a pandemic.
In the sixth century, an outbreak of ____________ killed forty percent of Constantinople’s population.
bubonic plague
Which of the following are examples of pandemics?
The Spanish flu that broke out in 1918.
The bubonic plague that swept across Europe in the mid-1300s.
The Industrial Revolution saw many people moving from the ________ to the ________.
rural areas, urban areas
In history, what altered the development and population of sub-Saharan Africa?
The Atlantic slave trade.
All of the following are considered major turning points in human history except:
exploration
The World Health Organization has the goals of which of the following for global health?
preparedness
awareness
detection
alert systems
vaccine research
The agency that collects data that focuses on people, such as population, income, and age, is the ______.
U.S. Census Bureau
What has been an effect of the AIDS pandemic?
There has been a decline in economic productivity in countries affected by AIDS.
To find environmental health information, you would use which governmental agency?
U.S. Geological Survey
What types of data does the U.S. Census Bureau collects?
public education finances
employment growth
population density
poverty distribution
Natural Philosophy was a switch from what worldview?
medieval
This period formed the foundation of the modern world:
French Revolution to World War I
Which statement best defines an entrepreneur?
Businessperson increases industrial production during the Industrial Revolution.
Which event opened Asian countries to trade with Europe?
Opium wars
Which is not characteristic of the military and fiscal revolution?
Countries used unfavorable trade treaties.
Which term best describes a country formed on a shared culture, history, and language?
nationalism
Which of the following factors is not responsible for European dominance in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries?
shift of military power away from European countries
To establish the People’s Republic of China in 1949, a revolution occurred. What political background was successful for the new People’s Republic of China?
Chinese Communists
What was an immediate cause of the 1789 French Revolution?
a financial crisis
What was the immediate cause of the Springtime of the Peoples?
a revolution in france
Who is a Nicaraguan national hero?
Augusto César Sandino
By invoking the image of past national heroes, revolutionaries can_____.
gain support for their movement
Nationalism rejects _____.
foreign influences
Which of Marx and Engle’s ideas were influencial in the 1917 Russian Revolution? Choose all correct reponses.
They wrote of all property being used for the benefit of all the society’s members.
They wrote of a society in which social classes and the state disappear.
(partial)
A system of ideas is called _____.
an ideology
What form of government did the 1910 Chinese Revolution establish?
a republic
In Chile, who initiated the “revolution from above?”
Salvador Allende
The 1979 Iranian Revolution established _____.
an Islamic republic
Italian nationalist Garibaldi showed great perserverance by returning to Italy after a failed attempt against the Austrians, only to what?
lead the next revolution to unify Italy
The three forms of nationalism mentioned in this lesson are _____.
ethnic, political, religous
Currently, there are _________ sovereign countries in the United Nations.
192
The development of nation-states began _____.
in recent times
Two factors that make it difficult for people to retain a sense of nationalism are _____.
globalization
immigration
What are three reasons for mass immigration today?
famine
civil wars
disease
Ethnicities wanting self governance is often a factor when seeking the status of a nation-state. An example would be the countries created following
the fall of the soviet union
__________ is characterized by the unregulated exchange of services and goods.
Free Market
According to the lesson, the economic doctrine that opposes government regulation of the economy is called _____.
laissez-faire
Socioeconomic status can be based on which of the following factors?
job
income
education
How did the United States stop the spread of Communism in Europe following World War II?
by rebuilding the European economy through the Marshall Plan
The economic system that came out on top at the end of the Cold War was _____.
capitalism
Pure communism has been proven to not work over the past century, while pure capitalism also has shown it needs some controls to reduce the chances of what?
growth of monopolies and unfair trade practices
What best defines an economic system?
process by which people choose how to use limited resources in order to meet their needs
Which of the following is not a characteristic of the new traditional economic system?
The government will control the means of production.
What is the goal of a command economic system?
to make society more equal
What is another term for a market economic system?
capitalism
Basic economic questions are answered by the central authority in which economic system?
command economic system
Mercantilism was based on a nation’s power and wealth, which was enabled by the _____.
amount of precious metals that could be had
Which economic system allows for less freedoms of innovation?
command economy
Adam Smith wrote the famous economics book _____.
The Wealth of Nations
Which of the following best illustrates the traditional economic system?
passing clothes down from older to younger brother
Match the following terms
1. Free Enterprise System- private ownership of capital
2. mixed economy- private and state ownership of business
3. the former Soviet Union- command economy
4. land and capital- factors of production
Capitalism has evolved away from pure capitalism into ______________ throughout much of the world.
mixed economy
Stratification is _____.
the categorization of society into social classes
Which era saw the first domestication of animals?
Mesolitihic
Family planning is a service that helps couples _____.
decide if they will have children or how many children they will have
The pandemic that ravaged Constantinople in the sixth century was called the _____.
Justinian Plague
A pandemic is _____.
an infectious disease outbreak
Advances in which three areas resulted in European countries establishing colonial empires:
technology
Industrialization
labor
The nationalist Giuseppe Garibaldi led a failed revolution to free ____________ from Austrian control in 1848.
Italy
What is a significant difference between Socialism and Capitalism?
Government or a central authority owns the means of production under Socialism.
What do all three economic systems have in common?
Each system represents different answers to the four basic economic questions.
Mercantilism is a form of _____.
Capitalism
The Russian Revolution of 1905 had its roots in _____.
Russo-Japanese War
economic and political issues
The major theatres of the Russo-Japanese War were:
ort Arthur
Liaodong Peninsula
Mukden
Yellow Sea
Tsushima Straits
along the railway line from Port Arthur to Harbin
What did the “Emancipation Manifesto” do?
set serfs free and gave them land
Two of the secret revolutionary groups in Russia were _____.
Populists
Nihilists
The last czar of Russia was _____.
Nicholas II
The leader of the Mensheviks was _____.
Martov
What did the “October Manifesto” do?
granted freedom of speech and assembly
created an elected legislature
Which of the following were not direct causes of World War I?
totalitarianism
industrialism
The terrorist who ignited the flame of World War I was a member of what organization?
The black hand
What was the original name given to the worldwide hostilities that began in 1914?
The great war
What was a major component of the Schlieffen Plan?
Germany would attack France first, then Russia.
Select the countries that made up the Allied Forces of the Triple Entente.
Russia, France, Britian
Russia’s advancements were repelled in what was called ______.
the great retreat
What brought about the February Revolution?
(partial)
food shortages
greedy factory owners
What finally brought America into the war?
Germany’s declaration of unlimited submarine warfare
Because of the devastation of World War l, what best describes international attitudes toward Germany?
The world sought revenge through a peace treaty naming Germany as responsible for damages.
The four main Allies in World War I were _____.
England
France
U.S.
Russia
What were two terms of the peace treaty?
(partial)
Borders of some European nations changed.
The United Nations was formed.
The treaty ending World War I was signed at the Palace of _____.
versailles
What future world leader got his start as a result of Germany’s misery following World War I?
Adolf Hitler
The treaty ending the war made _______ solely responsible for the war.
Germany
What major Allied country refused to join the League of Nations?
U.S.
How did the Japanese see the American people?
as decadent and unscrupulous
Tojo, the Japanese military leader and prime minster, persuaded the emperor to do what?
attack the U.S.
Another name for Nazi Germany was the _____.
third reich
What are two things the Jews were blamed for by German propaganda?
economic depression
Germany’s defeat in World War I
The areas in Poland where Jews were forced to live were called _____.
ghettos
The most infamous concentration camp was located at _____.
Auschwitz
What were the Judenrates?
jewish councils
World War II began with the German invasion of _____.
poland
Why were the Japanese kamikaze pilots willing to crash their planes and die?
The Japanese believed “It’s better to die than to be captured.”
What finally persuaded U.S. President Harry Truman to use the atomic bomb on Japan?
It seemed that the Japanese would never surrender, no matter how badly they were beaten back.
World War I and World War II were both concentrated in _________ and _______ in scope.
time
global
What kind of epidemic struck Europe during World War I?
influenza
What war was called the “Great War”?
World War I
What four empires came to an end due to World War I?
German
Austro-Hungarian
Russian
Ottoman
What are three nations that were created after World War I?
Latvia
Czechoslovakia
Lithuania
What are four outcomes of World War II?
War ended with development of atomic bombs
Political boarders are re-arranged
Populations are discplaced
Sustained economic growth occurred during reconstruction
As a consequence of the expense and devastation of the world wars, what became of the colonial lands?
Colonies remained controlled by weakened countries that had fought in the wars.
What was the significance of the Balfour Declaration?
It declared the intent to establish the nation of Israel.
In this lesson, EEC stands for:
European Economic Community
Which Allied leader is described below?

His peace plan for World War I was called the Fourteen Points.
He believed Germany had to be punished for its role in World War I, but in a way that would lead to European reconciliation as opposed to revenge.
He proposed the formation of a League of Nations

Woodrow Wilson
Select A for Allies in World War I.
Select C for Central Powers in World War I.
Great Britain A

France A

Germany C

United States A

Russia A

Austria-Hungary C

The Austro-Hungarian, Russian, German, and ______ empires came to an end as a result of World War I.
Ottoman
Which of the following describes conditions in Germany following World War I?
Germany experienced an economic depression.
Adolf Hitler and the Nazis rose to power.
Germans were dissatisfied with the terms of the Treaty of Versailles.
World War II began with the German invasion of _______.
poland
Dachau and Auschwitz were ______.
concentration camps
What happened during Kristallnacht?
The Nazis arrested Jewish men and destroyed Jewish buildings.
The Nazi Propaganda Ministry ______.
was headed by Dr. Joseph Goebbels
spread pro-Nazi policies and ideas
controlled the information in books, magazines, and movies
The EEC (European Economic Community) permitted what after World War II?
allowed people to travel freely within member nations
What were a few of the underlying reasons that World War I began?
militarism
mutual defense alliances
imperialism
________ Germany became a satellite of the Soviet Union following World War II.
East
The “Emancipation Manifesto” signed by Czar Alexander II _____.
gave serfs land
The leader of the Bolsheviks was _____.
Lenin
The Anglo-Boer War was fought between the _____.
English and Boers
Tension between the British and Boers was caused primarily by what things?
competition
culture
What are some of the origins or causes of the Anglo-Boer War?
Uitlander grievances about taxes and suppressed rights
the dynamite tax and proposed railroad construction
The Boers left Cape Colony to begin what two states?
Orange Free State
Transvaal
Match the three stages of the Anglo-Boer War to the correct order:
1. the Boer offensive- stage 1
2. the British response- stage 2
3. guerilla war- stage 3
What qualities or characteristics made the Ottoman Empire influential across Europe?
Culture, Islamic traditions, military leadership, geographic extent.
The Ottoman Empire was founded by _____ tribes in Anatolia.
turkish
The coalition of various reform groups was called the _____.
young turks
The Ottoman Empire joined forces with the ______ powers during World War I.
Central
Two characteristics of the Constitution of 1876 were _____.
two-chamber parliament
executive power given to the ruler
The modern name for Anatolia is _____.
Turkey
What reforms did the Young Turks demand?
(partial)
the right to vote
emancipation of women
Sun Yat-sen was going to enact democracy in three phases. What were they?
The army would rule while establishing national unity.
The people would be educated on democracy and appoint leaders.
There would be effective functioning of the branches of government with rights for people.
Sun Yat-sen’s Four Point Plan was based on the Three Principles of the People which were _____.
Nationalism, Socialism, and Democracy
The goal of Chinese nationalism was to free China from _____.
foreign imperialism
corrupt treaties
The name of Sun Yat-sen’s party was the Chinese Nationalist Party, or _____.
Kuomintang
The founding of modern China is credited to _____.
Sun Yat-sen
What were three of the conditions leading to the May Fourth Intellectual Movement?
rise of Chinese nationalism
spread of public education
rise of new intellectual class
Domesticated animals provided what three things for pastoral people?
(partial)
source of food
source of milk, hides, and wool
source of money
Match the vocabulary term with its meaning.
1. a religious belied in many gods- polytheism
2. the religious practice of foretelling the future-
divination
3. a religious belief in only one god- monotheism
What one characteristic did all six societies share?
Technology
The _____ society did NOT have a centralized government.
Pastoral
History is the interaction between _____.
environment
civilizations
ideas
Match the vocabulary term with its meaning.
(partial)
1. a society that has a high level of culture and social organization- Civilization
2. a lifestyle of wandering from place to place- Pastoral
3. a life of tending livestock in open pastures- Nomadic
4. the process of settling down in one location- Sedentary
5. moving from one place to another for any number of reasons- Migration
The four major river valleys that were homes to early civilizations are _____.
Yellow
Nile
Tigris and Euphrates
Indus
The Shang Dynasty followed which dynasty?
Xia
_____ was home to the Minoan people.
Crete
The chariot was first used as a weapon by the _____.
Hittites
The Code of Hammurabi is a product of this civilization.
Mesopotamian
Match the kind of writing with the civilization that made it famous.
1. Hieroglyphics- Egypt
2. Linear- Mycenaean
3. Cuneiform- Mesopotamia
4. Pictographs- Indus
The Epic of _____ tells the story of a mythological king and a worldwide flood.
Gilgamesh
_______ was the most important contribution of the Shang Dynasty.
Writing
The Indo-European language is thought to have originated around _____.
Iran and Azerbaijan
This sentence is from which of the following?

If anyone bring an accusation of any crime before the elders, and does not prove what he has charged, he shall, if it be a capital offense charged, be put to death.

The Code of Hammurabi
How was theft dealt with in the Code of Hammurabi?
paying restitution
death
What two things did the wealthy merchants of ancient Egypt want?
(Partial)
beautiful buildings
luxury items
Which of the following best describes the trade routes in the early River Valley Civilizations? Select all that apply.
(Partial)
They enabled Crete to become the crossroads for three different continents: Asia, Africa and Europe.
Trade routes brought a cultural exchange that resulted in significant advancements in civilization throughout the region.
Sanskrit is the ancient language of _____.
India
The state religion of the Han Dynasty was _____.
Confucianism
India is the home to what two religions?